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                  Potassium and Your CKD Diet

                  What is potassium and why is it important to you?

                  Potassium is a mineral found in many of the foods you eat. It plays a role in keeping your heartbeat regular and your muscles working right. It is the job of healthy kidneys to keep the right amount of potassium in your body. However, when your kidneys are not healthy, you often need to limit certain foods that can increase the potassium in your blood to a dangerous level. You may feel some weakness, numbness and tingling if your potassium is at a high level. If your potassium becomes too high, it can cause an irregular heartbeat or a heart attack.

                  Looking for nutrition guidance? Contact a CKD dietitian in your area.

                  What is a safe level of potassium in my blood?

                  Ask your doctor or dietitian about your monthly blood potassium level and enter it here:

                  If it is 3.5-5.0………………………You are in the SAFE zone
                  If it is 5.1-6.0………………………You are in the CAUTION zone
                  If it is higher than 6.0……………..You are in the DANGER zone

                  How can I keep my potassium level from getting too high?

                  • You should limit foods that are high in potassium. Your renal dietitian will help you plan your diet so you are getting the right amount of potassium.
                  • Eat a variety of foods but in moderation.
                  • If you want to include some high potassium vegetable in your diet, leach them before using. Leaching is a process by which some potassium can be pulled out of the vegetable. Instructions for leaching selected high potassium vegetables can be found at the end of this fact sheet. Check with your dietitian on the amount of leached high potassium vegetables that can be safely included in your diet.
                  • Do not drink or use the liquid from canned fruits and vegetables, or the juices from cooked meat.
                  • Remember that almost all foods have some potassium. The size of the serving is very important. A large amount of a low potassium food can turn into a high- potassium food.
                  • If you are on dialysis, be sure to get all the treatment or exchanges prescribed to you.
                   

                  What is a normal amount of potassium intake per day for the average healthy individual?

                  A normal amount of potassium in a typical diet of a healthy American is about 3500 to 4500 milligrams per day. A potassium restricted diet is typically about 2000 milligrams per day. Your physician or dietitian will advise you as to the specific level of restriction you need based on your individual health. A kidney dietitian is trained to help you make modifications to you diet in order to prevent complications for kidney disease.

                  What foods are high in potassium (greater than 200 milligrams per portion)?

                  The following table lists foods that are high in potassium. The portion size is ? cup unless otherwise stated. Please be sure to check portion sizes. While all the foods on this list are high in potassium, some are higher than others.

                  High-Potassium Foods
                  Fruits Vegetables Other Foods
                  Apricot, raw (2 medium)
                  dried (5 halves)
                  Acorn Squash Bran/Bran products
                  Avocado (? whole) Artichoke Chocolate (1.5-2 ounces)
                  Banana (? whole) Bamboo Shoots Granola
                  Cantaloupe Baked Beans Milk, all types (1 cup)
                  Dates (5 whole) Butternut Squash Molasses (1 Tablespoon)
                  Dried fruits Refried Beans Nutritional Supplements:
                    Use only under the
                    direction of your doctor
                    or dietitian.
                  Figs, dried Beets, fresh then boiled
                  Grapefruit Juice Black Beans
                  Honeydew Broccoli, cooked Nuts and Seeds (1 ounce)
                  Kiwi (1 medium) Brussels Sprouts Peanut Butter (2 tbs.)
                  Mango(1 medium) Chinese Cabbage Salt Substitutes/Lite Salt
                  Nectarine(1 medium) Carrots, raw Salt Free Broth
                  Orange(1 medium) Dried Beans and Peas Yogurt
                  Orange Juice Greens, except Kale Snuff/Chewing Tobacco
                  Papaya (? whole) Hubbard Squash  
                  Pomegranate (1 whole) Kohlrabi  
                  Pomegranate Juice Lentils  
                  Prunes Legumes  
                  Prune Juice White Mushrooms, cooked (? cup)  
                  Raisins Okra  
                    Parsnips  
                    Potatoes, white and sweet  
                    Pumpkin  
                    Rutabagas  
                    Spinach, cooked  
                    Tomatoes/Tomato products  
                    Vegetable Juices  

                  What foods are low in potassium?

                  The following table list foods which are low in potassium. A portion is ? cup unless otherwise noted. Eating more than 1 portion can make a lower potassium food into a higher potassium food.

                  Low-Potassium Foods
                  Fruits Vegetables Other Foods
                  Apple (1 medium) Alfalfa sprouts Rice
                  Apple Juice Asparagus (6 spears raw) Noodles
                  Applesauce Beans, green or wax
                  Broccoli (raw or cooked from frozen)
                  Pasta
                  Apricots, canned in juice Cabbage, green and red
                  Carrots, cooked
                  Bread and bread products (Not Whole Grains)
                  Blackberries Cauliflower Cake: angel, yellow
                  Blueberries Celery (1 stalk) Coffee: limit to 8 ounces
                  Cherries Corn, fresh (? ear) frozen (? cup) Pies without chocolate or high potassium fruit
                  Cranberries Cucumber Cookies without nuts or chocolate
                  Fruit Cocktail Eggplant Tea: limit to 16 ounces
                  Grapes Kale  
                  Grape Juice Lettuce  
                  Grapefruit (? whole) Mixed Vegetables  
                  Mandarin Oranges White Mushrooms, raw (? cup)  
                  Peaches, fresh (1 small)
                  canned (? cup)
                  Onions  
                  Pears, fresh (1 small)
                  canned (? cup)
                  Parsley  
                  Pineapple Peas, green  
                  Pineapple Juice Peppers  
                  Plums (1 whole) Radish  
                  Raspberries Rhubarb  
                  Strawberries Water Chestnuts, canned  
                  Tangerine (1 whole) Watercress  
                  Watermelon (limit to 1 cup) Yellow Squash
                    Zucchini Squash  

                  How do I get some of the potassium out of my favorite high-potassium vegetables?

                  The process of leaching will help pull potassium out of some high-potassium vegetables. It is important to remember that leaching will not pull all of the potassium out of the vegetable. You must still limit the amount of leached high-potassium vegetables you eat. Ask your dietitian about the amount of leached vegetables that you can safely have in your diet.

                  How to leach vegetables.

                  For Potatoes, Sweet Potatoes, Carrots, Beets, Winter Squash, and Rutabagas:

                  1. Peel and place the vegetable in cold water so they won’t darken.
                  2. Slice vegetable 1/8 inch thick.
                  3. Rinse in warm water for a few seconds.
                  4. Soak for a minimum of two hours in warm water. Use ten times the amount of water to the amount of vegetables. If soaking longer, change the water every four hours.
                  5. Rinse under warm water again for a few seconds.
                  6. Cook vegetable with five times the amount of water to the amount of vegetable.

                  Read more about Potassium and Your CKD Diet.

                  References:
                  Bowes & Church Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, 17th Ed., Pennington, JA, Lippincott, 1998.
                  Diet Guide for Patients with Kidney Disease, Renal Interest Group-Kansas City Dietetic Association, 1990.

                  Date Reviewed: 06-15-2020
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